Whether you are a manager, a homemaker, a subordinate, or a student, it is almost impossible to avoid being a member of a team. A survey by the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC) found that two thirds of full-time employees indicated that they participated in teams and 84 per cent participated in more than one team.
Today's manager leads a global workforce and manages worldwide operations across national boundaries. And when Lawler, Mohrman & Ledford carried out a study among Fortune 500 companies they revealed how employee involvement in teams had a strong positive relationship with several dimensions of organizational and worker effectiveness.
Key benefits of teamwork:
A key to success with modern teams involves the continual use of information technology to support team activities. Groupware information systems make it possible for a group of collaborating individuals to carry out computer-supported co-operative work.
Groupware has facilitated unprecedented change when looking at how teams function within an organization. It has opened up the doors for new and innovative methods of teamwork, many of which are already in practise today.
Many international-based organizations are constantly moving their managers from one foreign subsidiary to another to help them develop a global view and an international network of contacts. For example, Ford Motor Company has a global design network that ties managers and employees together world-wide. This increases the likelihood of speedy, effective problem solving.
"The modern organization is being transformed from a structure built of jobs into a field of work that needs to be done. Individuals no longer take directions from a job description or a supervisor. Signals now come from the changing demands of the project and the team."
Team-based strategic planning
It is common to find teams of line and staff managers with a wide range of ages and cultural backgrounds involved in the strategic planning process today, as it is accepted that a good strategic planning process must allow ideas to surface from anywhere and at any time.
New technologies are changing the traditional, fixed-jobs approach into one which teams perform tasks and the composition of these teams changes as the tasks evolve. Intel, for example, will hire an individual to be a member of a specific project team. The project will change with time and the individual's duties and responsibilities will change with it.
These organizations are characterized by lateral decision processes, horizontal networks, and a strong corporate culture. This concept is currently used by large global firms, such as General Electric, who have an electronics/computer-based orientation.
Virtual organizations are usually a temporary group of independent companies formed to exploit a specific opportunity. This method often covers a wide geographical area which makes the use of electronic technology a necessity. Examples of firms using the concept of virtual corporations include Nokia, Nike, Intersolve Group and Apple Computer.
Sun Microsystems made the decision to utilize virtual teams to provide a "lean and mean" organization. They consequently integrated these teams into their total operations:
The SunExpress' Customer Order Cycle Team – developed an electronic data interchange system which allows major customers to place their orders online and receive them within three days. By using weekly conferencing calls they finished their work in seven months without ever having met face to face.
SunService's Live Call Transfer Team – had a major impact on customer response time by entirely overhauling and simplifying SunService's call answering process. They introduced an email process and significantly reduced customer response time.
Overall, the virtual team concept has been considered a resounding success. Three aspects of Sun's virtual team projects may point to success for other organizations wishing to utilize virtual teams: executive sponsorship, preparation, and infrastructure.
Are you a manager considering virtual teamwork as a method of innovation? If so, you may face problems in the form of:
These strategic recommendations will help ensure the success of your virtual team initiative:
Although the telecommunication system cannot be a substitute for face-to-face communication, it will facilitate the development of commitments among virtual team members. Information technology definitely has the capability to assist teams in becoming dynamic entities in the new millennium.
The use of information technology may have a greater impact on the team dynamic than the traditional approaches of striving to improve face-to-face interpersonal communication, and therefore improve an organizational commitment to innovation.
This is a précis of an article entitled "Virtual teaming: a strategy for moving your organization into the new millennium" originally published in Industrial Management & Data Systems Volume 100 Number 8.
The authors were Stanley Stough, Sean Eom and James Buckenmyer of the Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, USA